Ilias has been working with the HYPE model which is able to simulate water flow and water quality. The model was firstly launched in 2005 (further development is ongoing) at SMHI, following on from the widely applied HBV concept.


HYPE is a semi-distributed process-based hydrological model for basin- and multibasin-scale assessments of water resources.The model simulates water flow and substances on their way from precipitation through soil, river, reservoir and lakes to the river outlet (Lindström et al., 2010). The catchment is divided into subbasins which in turn are divided into classes (calculation units) depending on land use, soil type and elevation.

Description of the HYPE model structure.

The model processes can be land use or soil-type dependent, whilst the model can be set up for large domains at relatively high resolution using readily available databases as input data. Currently HYPE runs opperationally providing daily forecasts for Sweden and Europe:

• S-HYPE (Sweden, Q, N & P)
• E-Hype (Europe, Q, N & P)
Other applications include:
• Balt-HYPE (Baltic Sea basin, Q, N & P)
• LPB-HYPE (La Plata Basin, Q)
• Arctic-HYPE (Arctic, Q)
• MENA-HYPE (Middle East, Northern Africa, Q)
• Niger-HYPE (Niger River, Q)
• India-HYPE (Indian subcontinent, Q)


Lindström, G., Pers, C.P., Rosberg, R., Strömqvist, J., Arheimer, B. 2010. Development and test of the HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model – A water quality model for different spatial scales. Hydrology Research 41.3-4:295-319.

Girons Lopez, M., Crochemore, L., Pechlivanidis, I.G., 2021, ‘Benchmarking an operational hydrological model for providing seasonal forecasts in Sweden’, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 1189-1209,

Pechlivanidis I.G., Crochemore L., Rosberg J., Bosshard T., 2020, ‘What are the key drivers controlling the forecasts of seasonal streamflow volumes?’, Water Resources Research, doi: 10.1029/2019WR026987

Crochemore L., Ramos M-H., Pechlivanidis I.G., 2020, ‘Can continental model convey useful seasonal hydrologic information at the catchment scale?’, Water Resources Research, 56, e2019WR025700.



Dr Ilias G. Pechlivanidis SMHI